Equivalent length of pipe fittings table

This content cannot be displayed without JavaScript. Please enable JavaScript and reload the page. When using the Hazen-Williams method, the most accurate way to account for resistance due to valves and fittings is to add an equivalent length for the valve or fitting to the pipe length. These equations were developed using the Darcy-Weisbach method, which is why they are not as accurate when used with the Hazen-Williams method.

equivalent length of pipe fittings table

The executable file, located at the bottom of the page, contains the following tables:. ANSI B Make sure that the valve or fitting you add to the pipeline is for the specific C value of the pipe material. The NFPA 15 Standard has equivalent lengths for valves and fittings based on the type of valve or fitting and the pipe size.

Then, depending on the C value and the pipe inside diameter in relation to steel schedule 40 inside diameter, there are factors to multiply the equivalent length by. Tables show the equivalent lengths as specified by the NFPA 15 Standard for a variety of valves and fittings for Schedule 40 steel pipe with a C value of You will be prompted to save the table.

The name you select to save the table will be the name filled into the Table Name box. Now you will need to enter a version for the table. You will also need to fill in the boxes for Device Type, Description, and Table formula.

Make sure that you put the same name in the Description box for all the different sizes of the same valve or fitting.Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro.

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Make Shortcut to Home Screen?Jump to content. Great spreadsheet! Is the spreadsheet you uploaded with the Crane equations just for expansions and contractions associated with valves? There is a full chapter dedicated to expansions and another chapter dedicated to contractions, but to my suprise, the equations in Crane were not used. Is my thought that the equations used in the book "Pipe Flow" are for expansions and contractions on pipes not associated with valves correct?

Equivalent Length of Valves and Fittings Calculation

No, the spreadsheet has been programmed for pipe expansion or enlargement and contraction or reduction. Valves have been dealt with separately including full bore and reduced bore with various types such as Gate, Globe, Ball, Check, Plug and Buttetrfly valves. I do not have the book you have mentioned and hence cannot make a comment on the contents of the book. All the really good parts are not shown in this preview, but take a look and see if you are interested.

The reason why I thought Crane's equations for expanders and reducers was only to be used when they are in combination with a valve is because, in the edition, the equations you used are in a section called "Formulas for Calculating K factors for Valves and Fittings with Reduced Port". See the seven formulas on page However, in more modern editions, those equations are now in a section concerning pipe flow - but the equations are the same as in the edition. So, I am still confused as to which equations to trust.

Section The higher the angle, the greater the resistance; therefore, you may want to look into that as your angles are non-conservative. Disregard my last comment about the difference in the angles. The angles turn out to be the same with your method versus the Rennels-Hudson method.

EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF FITTINGS

Wait, no - the angles are different! When I said they were the same, I was recalculating the length for the conical straight path and not using the constant lengths from ASME. Also, the Rennels-Hudson method is generally more conservative when comparing apples to apples with the angle set the same. However, the two methods are in the same ball park for expansions. Community Forum Software by IP.

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Enough of the sentimental stuff. Let's get down to the topic in hand. Equivalent length of pipe fittings and valves has been a topic often debated on engineeering forums and there is a lot of information available freely availbale on the internet related to the subject.

Crane Paper can be considered a kind of pioneering work in the field of fluid flow and I would recommend all chemical engineers to go throught this "treatise" on fluid flow.If you are looking for a calculator to perform pipe sizing and pressure drop calculations please jump to the AioFlo page. The sizing of pipes for optimum economy requires that engineers be able to accurately calculate the flow rates and pressure drops in those pipes.

The purpose of this document is to discuss the various methods available to support these calculations. The focus will be on the methods for calculating the minor losses in pipe sizing and to consider in particular the following aspects:.

Over the years excellent progress has been made in developing methods for determining the pressure drop when fluids flow through straight pipes. Accurate pipe sizing procedures are essential to achieve an economic optimum by balancing capital and running costs.

equivalent length of pipe fittings table

Industry has converged on the Darcy-Weisbach method, which is remarkably simple considering the scope of applications that it covers. Equation 1 expresses the pressure loss due to friction in the pipe as a head h L of the flowing fluid. The dimensions in Equation 1 can be in any consistent set of units. In long pipelines most of the pressure drop is due to the friction in the straight pipe, and the pressure drop caused by the fittings and valves is termed the "minor loss".

As pipes get shorter and more complicated the proportion of the losses due to the fittings and valves gets larger, but by convention are still called the "minor losses". Over the last few decades there have been considerable advances in the accurate determination of the minor losses, but as of now they cannot be determined with the same degree of accuracy as the major losses caused by friction in the straight pipe.

equivalent length of pipe fittings table

This situation is aggravated by the fact that these recent developments have not filtered through to all levels of engineering yet, and there are many old documents and texts still around that use older and less accurate methods.

There is still considerable confusion amongst engineers over which are the best methods to use and even how to use them. Unfortunately one of the most widely used and respected texts, which played a major role in advancing the state of the art, has added to this confusion by including errors and badly worded descriptions.

See section 4 below. Nevertheless, by employing the currently available knowledge and exercising care the minor losses can be determined with more than sufficient accuracy in all but the most critical situations. To further complicate matters, the resistance coefficient K method has several levels of refinement and when using this procedure it is important to understand how the K value was determined and its range of applicability.

There are also several definitions for C vand these are discussed below. For all pipe fittings it is found that the losses are close to being proportional to the second term in Equation 1.

This method is based on the observation that the major losses are also proportional to the velocity head. L e which would give rise to a pressure drop equivalent to the losses in the fittings, hence the name "equivalent length". However, if the design is complete and a detailed take-off of the fittings is available a more accurate calculation of the minor losses is possible by using experimentally determined equivalent lengths for each of the fittings and valves.

This makes the tabulation of equivalent length data very easy, because a single data value is sufficient to cover all sizes of that fitting. Some typical data is shown in the table below for a few frequently used fittings:.Use the values to calculate minor pressure loss with the Equivalent Pipe Length Method.

Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro.

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equivalent length of pipe fittings table

AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information. If you want to promote your products or services in the Engineering ToolBox - please use Google Adwords. Tag Search en: pvc friction loss minor pvc cpvc equivalent length.

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Make Shortcut to Home Screen?The minor loss in a system component can be converted to the "equivalent length" of a pipe or tube that would give the same major head loss. Equivalent length in feet of straight pipe for fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves. Pipe size in inches. Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro.

We don't collect information from our users. Only emails and answers are saved in our archive. Cookies are only used in the browser to improve user experience. Some of our calculators and applications let you save application data to your local computer.

These applications will - due to browser restrictions - send data between your browser and our server. We don't save this data. Google use cookies for serving our ads and handling visitor statistics.

AddThis use cookies for handling links to social media. Please read AddThis Privacy for more information.

Piping - Pipe classification - Pipe schedule

If you want to promote your products or services in the Engineering ToolBox - please use Google Adwords. Resistance and Fittings Equivalent Length in Hot Water Systems Equivalent length of fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves in hot water heating systems - equivalent length in feet and meter Sponsored Links.

Equivalent lengths of fittings like elbows - regular 90 olong radius 90 oregular 45 o tees - line flow and branch flow return bends - regular and long radius valves - globe, gate, angle and swing check strainers in hot water piping systems are indicated in the tables below.

Screw Fittings - equivalent length in feet Equivalent length in feet of straight pipe for fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves. Pipe size in inches Screw Fittings - equivalent length in metre Equivalent length in metre of straight pipe for fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves.

Flanged Fittings - equivalent length in feet Equivalent length in feet of straight pipe for fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves.

Flanged Fittings - equivalent length in metre Equivalent length in metre of straight pipe for fittings like bends, returns, tees and valves. Tag Search en: piping pipes head loss resistanse fittings. Privacy We don't collect information from our users. Citation This page can be cited as Engineering ToolBox, Modify access date.

Scientific Online Calculator. Make Shortcut to Home Screen?I am working through a problem where I need to find the equivalent length of concrete pipe. The CERM only gives equivalent length values for steel and cast iron. Where would I find a quick list of equivalent lengths for generic fittings for materials other than steel and cast iron?

FYI: the solution gives an equivalent length of for a check valve, 11 for a gate valve, and 31 for a long sweeping elbow. The manning coefficient for smooth steel is something like 0. Not a huge difference. What's wrong with using the equivalent length of steel pipe tables for fittings and adjusting by a factor of 1.

I've only cement asbestos C factors handy.

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Water is pumped from a reservoir at elevation The water is transferred a distance of one mile and contains: one check valve, two gate valves openand three long-sweeping elbows. Given the length of the line ftI'd think you can ignore the minor losses and still get an answer that's close enough. So first worry about the friction loss of the water just due to the mile of pipeline. For 18" pipe this is somewhere around 1. Frankly, I'd stop there and calculate HP for feet of pump head They have those kinds of questions on the Chem E test too.

I spent a LOT of my studying on this topic Feels like the whole morning part of the Chem E exam I took was problems very similar with a slight twist. And C for concrete is I show asbestos cement as The solution that I have actually used the velocity head, which was determined to be a mere foot of head.

So I agree with you - that it could be disregarded to save time during the exam. Velocity head and equivalent length methods for determining minor losses are similar in that they are related by the equation:. The hardest part of this question would have been in dealing with the friction factor, f. In the problem statement "f" is called "roughness coefficient", which when I had first read it I thought was the manning coefficient, n.

Odd, though, because f is a function of relative roughness and the Reynolds number.

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Does their solution verify it is really the friction factor "f" and not "n"? I've never heard of "f" called the roughness coefficient, though Notice how much quicker you get an answer when you use the tables instead of equation!


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